Antisipasi Indonesia Dalam Pembentukan Kesepakatan Internasional Mengenai Pemanfaatan Keanekaragaman Hayati di Wilayah Luar Yurisdiksi Nasional

Igor Yoso, Arie Afriansyah

Abstract


Konvensi Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa tentang Hukum Laut Tahun 1982 (The 1982 United Nations Convention on The Law of The Sea (UNCLOS 1982)) belum mengatur mengenai pemanfaatan keanekaragaman hayati di wilayah luar yurisdiksi nasional, tidak boleh ada negara manapun yang melakukan kedaulatannya pada wilayah di luar yurisdiksi nasional yang terdiri dari Laut Bebas dan Kawasan (The Area) sehingga dianggap telah melanggar ketentuan dari UNCLOS. Namun, seiring dengan perkembangan teknologi para ilmuwan menemukan terdapat potensi-potensi dari keanekaragaman hayati yang bisa dimanfaatkan pada wilayah tersebut. Dengan adanya penemuan potensi tersebut, memicu Indonesia dan negara-negara lainnya untuk melakukan eksplorasi dan eksploitasi keanekaragaman hayati di luar yuridiksinya. Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa (PBB) kemudian mengupayakan pembentukan pengaturan pemanfaatan keanekaragaman hayati di wilayah yurisdiksi nasional dengan cara mengakomodir pertimbangan negara-negara anggota melalui Intergovernmental Conference on Marine Biodiversity of Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction. Pada konferensi ini akan diuraikan draft teks perjanjian hukum internasional yang mengikat secara hukum di bawah UNCLOS yang mengatur khusus mengenai konservasi dan pemanfaatan berkelanjutan keanekaragaman hayati laut di wilayah luar yurisdiksi nasional.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29303/ius.v9i2.854

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