Perlindungan Pencari Suaka di Laut Lepas Eropa Ditinjau Dari Hukum Pengungsi di Eropa Dan Hukum Laut Internasional

Salwa Salsabila, Atip Latipulhayat

Abstract


Badan pengungsi PBB UNHCR mengatakan telah menerima banyak laporan dalam beberapa bulan terakhir yang menunjukkan para pencari suaka di laut Eropa telah didorong kembali kelaut lepast atau terapung-apung di laut. Mayoritas pencari suaka diangkut dengan kapal yang tidak layak. Selain itu, terdapat aturan Frontex yang bertujuan untuk mencegah kapal mendarat di wilayah UE bertentangan dengan dasar landasan perlindungan pengungsi Eropa. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk mengulas mengenai perlindungan pencari suaka yang berada di laut lepas Eropa, dan faktor penghambat dalam memberikan perlindungan pencari suaka di laut lepas. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian hukum yuridis normative dengan mengguna studi kepustakaan. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukan bahwa selain didasarkan pada konvensi pengungsi 1951 dan konvensi HAM internasional, Eropa juga telah memiliki instrument hukum yang komprehensif dalam memberikan perlindungan pencari suaka tetapi ada aturan frontex di laut mediterania yang bertentangan dengan prinsip non-refoulment. Namun, negara-negara Eropa tetap dapat memberikan perlindungan terhadap pencari suaka di laut lepas dengan dasar pada konvensi hukum laut internasional seperti UNCLOS 1982, SOLAS, SAR dan SALVAGE. Faktor-faktor penghambat dalam memberikan perlindungan pencari suaka di laut lepas adalah dalam menentukan place of safety dan adanya interception oleh negara.


Keywords


Pencari Suaka; Laut Lepas; Eropa

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Regulasi

European Convention on Human Rights

Konvensi Pengungsi Internasional 1951

Konvensi Hak dan Asasi Manusia Internasional

Konvensi UNCLOS 1982

Konvensi SOLAS

Konvensi SAR

Konvensi SALVAGE

Website

EASO, About US, https://easo.europa.eu/about-us diakses 22 Mei 2021 Siegfried, Kristy, The Refugee Brief, diakses dalam https://www.unhcr.org/refugeebrief/latest-issues/ pada 6 April 2021.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29303/ius.v9i3.958

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