The Future of Sex Robots in Indonesia: Law, Science, And Technology


  • Muhamad Dzadit Taqwa Faculty of Law, Universitas Indonesia
  • Ahmad Alfarizy Faculty of Law, Universitas Indonesia
  • Melinda Yunita Lasmaida Sirait Faculty of Law, Universitas Indonesia


law, sex robots, technology


Sex robots are humanoid machines used to fulfill sexual desires of their users. Their presence has created debates around the world. Currently, sex robots are not sold freely in Indonesia. Although, the future of such an innovation has to be scrutinized through the Indonesian laws. From the proponent side, the existence of such robots has possibly several justifications: (1) their usage has no implications on other people other than their users; (2) the market is potentially high; and (3) the use of this object entails some psychological benefits for those in need of them. Conversely, the opposing group will potentially argue that this technology is not in line with the religious values, decency, and even the laws in Indonesia. We did not find any journals that had discussed sex robots, especially through a law, science and technology approach, so there is still a research gap. This article scrutinized sex robots through the law, science, and technology perspective in the context of Indonesia in order to bring up their impacts that may require legal involvement. In principle, the use of sex robots that are used individually does not mean that they cannot be prohibited, especially if they are against the law, violate moral values, and/or disrupt the public interests in Indonesia.


Download data is not yet available.


Abramson, Paul R. “The Relationship of the Frequency of Masturbation to Several Aspects of Personality and Behavior.” Journal of Sex Research 9, no. 2 (1973): 132–42.

Anderson, J, and L Rainie. “The Positives of Digital Life.” Pew Research Center, 2018, 52–68.

“Andi Hamzah, KUHP & KUHAP, Ed. Revision (Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 2019), 114. The Redactions of the Article Are;,” n.d.

Bame, Yael. “‘Sex with a Robot? 1 in 4 Men Would Consider It.’” Accessed August 20, 2022.

Bekey, George A. Autonomous Robots: From Biological Inspiration to Implementation and Control. MIT press, 2005.

Camacho, Natalie Arroyo. “‘Can Regularly Masturbating Replace a Person’s Desire for Partnered Sex? Sexologists Weigh In,.’” Accessed August 22, 2022.

Cole, Simon A, and Alyse Bertenthal. “Science, Technology, Society, and Law.” Annual Review of Law and Social Science 13 (2017): 351–71.

Computer, History. “Karel Capek and the Robot (Complete History),.” Accessed August 22, 2022.

Considine, Douglas M, and Glenn D Considine. “Robot Technology Fundamentals.” In Standard Handbook of Industrial Automation, 262–320. Springer, 1986.

Cotton, Barney. “Sex Robots—A Disturbing Look inside One of the World’s Fastest Growing Industries.” Business Leader, 2018.

Danaher, John. “Is One of the Editors of the Book Entitled ‘Robot Sex: Social and Ethical Implications’. He Explained This Distinction in the TEDxTalks Event. TEDxTalks, “Symbols and Their Consequences in the Sex Robot Debate | John Danaher | TEDxWHU’.” Accessed March 7, 2017.

Danaher, John, and Neil McArthur. Robot Sex: Social and Ethical Implications. MIT press, 2017.

González-González, Carina Soledad et al. “Human–Robot Interaction and Sexbots: A Systematic Literature Review.” Sensors 21, no. 1 (2020): 216.

Gute, Gary et al. “Sex for You, but Not for Me: Discontinuity in Undergraduate Emerging Adults’ Definitions of ‘Having Sex.’” Journal of Sex Research 45, no. 4 (2008): 329–37.

Gutiu, Sinziana. “Sex Robots and Roboticization of Consent.” In We Robot Conference, 1–24, 2012.

Haenlein, Michael, and Andreas Kaplan. “A Brief History of Artificial Intelligence: On the Past, Present, and Future of Artificial Intelligence.” California Management Review 61, no. 4 (2019): 5–14.

“Hanson Robotics, ‘Sophia,’ Accessed September 2, 2022, Https://Www.Hansonrobotics.Com/Sophia/..,” n.d.

Horowitz, Ava D, and Louise Spicer. “‘Having Sex’ as a Graded and Hierarchical Construct: A Comparison of Sexual Definitions among Heterosexual and Lesbian Emerging Adults in the UK.” Journal of Sex Research 50, no. 2 (2013): 139–50.

“Indonesia, Pornography Law, Law No. 44 of 2008, LN No. 181 of 2008, TLN No. 4928. Art. 1,” n.d.

“Indonesia, The 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia, Art. 28C,” n.d. ““Kaidah ‘Hukum Asal Terhadap Benda Adalah Boleh’,”.” Accessed July 6, 2022.

Jalmee Bell. “‘In 2020, More Men and Women Are Likely to Consider Sex With a Robot,.’” Accessed July 18, 2022.

Jecker, Nancy S. “Nothing to Be Ashamed of: Sex Robots for Older Adults with Disabilities.” Journal of Medical Ethics 47, no. 1 (2021): 26–32.

“Jon Rogers, ‘The TALKING Sex Robot: Meet the World’s Most Realistic Intercourse Doll with Integrated AI,’ Accessed September 2, 2022, Https://Www.Express.Co.Uk/News/World/787867/Sex-Doll-Robot-Harmony-2-0-RealDoll,” n.d.

Jordan, John M. Robots. MIT Press, 2016.

Kanda, Takayuki et al. “Interactive Robots as Social Partners and Peer Tutors for Children: A Field Trial.” Human–Computer Interaction 19, no. 1–2 (2004): 61–84.

Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Perdata (Burgerlijk Wetboek) diterjemahkan oleh R. Subekti dan R. Tjitrosudibio, Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Perdata (1983).

Kleeman, Jenny. Sex Robots & Vegan Meat: Adventures at the Frontier of Birth, Food, Sex & Death. Pan Macmillan, 2020.

Lamintang. Delik-Delik Khusus: Kejahatan Melanggar Norma-Norma Kesusilaan Dan Norma Kepatutan (Jakarta: Sinar Grafika, 2011), 97. However, According to Prof. Oemar Seno Adji, This Viewpoint Does Not Consider the Religious and Moral Values in Indonesian Society. Beca, n.d.

Letezia Tobing. “‘Mengenai Benda Bergerak Dan Benda Tidak Bergerak,.’” Accessed July 6, 2022.

Levy, David. Love and Sex with Robots: The Evolution of Human-Robot Relationships. New York, 2009.

Libin, Alexander V, and Elena V Libin. “Person-Robot Interactions from the Robopsychologists’ Point of View: The Robotic Psychology and Robotherapy Approach.” Proceedings of the IEEE 92, no. 11 (2004): 1789–1803.

Lindau, Stacy Tessler et al. “A Study of Sexuality and Health among Older Adults in the United States.” New England Journal of Medicine 357, no. 8 (2007): 762–74.

Malti-Douglas, Fedwa. Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender. Farmington Hills: Macmillan Reference, 2007.

Mataric, Maja J. The Robotics Primer. MIT press, 2007.

McLeay, Fraser et al. “Replaced by a Robot: Service Implications in the Age of the Machine.” Journal of Service Research 24, no. 1 (2021): 104–21.

McMullen, Matt. “‘Sex Robot Companion & Future of AI Speaker,’ Prophets of AI,” n.d.

Meghan Murphy. “‘Sex Robots Epitomize Patriarchy and Offer Men a Solution to the Threat of Female Independence,’ Feminist Current,” n.d.

Morris, Andrea. “‘Meet The Activist Fighting Sex Robots,’ Accessed on 2022-08-22, Https://Www.Forbes.Com/Sites/Andreamorris/2018/09/26/Meet-the-Activist-Fighting-Sex-Robots/?Sh=4bb868866e79.,” n.d.

“Muhammad Bayu Firmansyah, ‘Konvergensi Hukum Robot Dalam Sistem Hukum Nasional Indonesia Pada Masyarakat 5.0,’ (Thesis of the Master’s Program at the Islamic University of Indonesia, Semarang, 2021), 96,” n.d.

Narcotics Law, Law No. 35 of 2009, LN No. 143 of 2009, TLN No. 5062, Art. 8 subsection (1)., n.d.

National Geographic. “What Is a Robot?” Accessed July 2, 2022.

News, ABC. “‘You Can Soon Buy a Sex Robot Equipped with Artificial Intelligence for about $20,000,’” n.d.

———. “You Can Soon Buy a Sex Robot Equipped with Artificial Intelligence for about $20,000,” n.d.

Oktavira, Bernadetha Aurelia. “‘Hukumnya Jual Sex Toys Di Indonesia,.’” Accessed July 7, 2022.

Pornography Law, Law No. 44 of 2008, LN No. 181 of 2008, TLN No. 4928. Art. 6, n.d.

Richardson, Kathleen. “The Asymmetrical’relationship’ Parallels between Prostitution and the Development of Sex Robots.” Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 45, no. 3 (2016): 290–93.

“‘Rise of the Sex Robots,’ The Guardian, Accessed on 27 April 2017, Https://Www.Youtube.Com/Watch?V=6vN0cs_-RSs.,” n.d.

Robotnik. “History of Robots and Robotics.” Accessed August 22, 2022.

Roeslan Saleh. Perbuatan Pidana Dan Pertanggung Jawaban Pidana. Jakarta: Aksara Baru, 1983.

SciShow. “A Brief History of Robotics.” Youtube, August 22, 2022) 00:03:29-00:03:56, n.d.

Soesilo, R. Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Pidana Serta Komentar-Komentarnya Lengkap Pasal Demi Pasal. Bogor: Politeia, 1995.

Temperton, James. “Campaign Calls for Ban on Sex Robots.” Accessed September 2, 2022.

“The Author Does Not Assert That There Is a Reality in Society That Is Afflicting Entity Gaps Sex Robot and Sex Doll as a Sex Partner. One of the Figures Who Agreed with This Was David Levy, Who Said That “We Have a Quasi-Human Relationship with the Machin,” n.d.

“The Encyclopedia of World Problems & Human Potentials, ‘Masturbation,.’” Accessed August 9, 2022.

“The Future of Sex,”, Three, BBC. “‘The Future of Sex,.’” Accessed August 22, 2022.

Wang, Jinchang. “Will a Robot Be a Human?” In Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing: 11th International Conference, ICAISC 2012, Zakopane, Poland, April 29-May 3, 2012, Proceedings, Part II 11, 519–27. Springer, 2012.

Zara Stone, “. “Everything You Need To Know About Sophia, The World’s First Robot Citizen.” Accessed August 22, 2022.



How to Cite

Taqwa, M. D., Alfarizy, A., & Lasmaida Sirait, M. Y. (2023). The Future of Sex Robots in Indonesia: Law, Science, And Technology. Jurnal IUS Kajian Hukum Dan Keadilan, 11(2), 333–355.