I Nyoman Nurjaya


Indonesia is well known as a multicultural country in Southeast Asia in term of its ethnic,
religion, racial and social stratification. It is Unity in Diversity, which is reflected in the official
motto of the State to describe the social and cultural diversity of Indonesia. The diversity refers to a cultural configuration which reflects the National identity of Indonesia, containing cultural capital and cultural power. However, cultural diversity yields conflict that could potentially generate social disintegration due to inter-ethnic and inter-religious disputes that may result in the disintegration of Indonesia as a Nation State. In the eyes of legal anthropologists, sources of conflicts are based on discriminatory policies expressed within State’s law and legislations in line to the recognition and protection the existence of local communities, namely traditional adat communities spread out in the region. Thus, State laws enacted and enforced by the Government tend to dominate and marginalize as well as ignore the rights of the local communities particularly over access and control natural resources they based on customary adat law in the region. The paper attempts to offer an answer to the fundamental question whether the 1945 Constitution recognise and protect the traditional communities and their customary adat law by employing a legal anthropological approach with the purpose of obtaining a better understanding regarding the development of State law
in a multicultural Nation toward a more just and equitable State law of Indonesia.
Keywords : Multicultural, Unity in Diversity, Conflict, Anthropological Approach

Full Text:



Allot, Anthony and R. Woodman Gordon (eds). 1975, People’s Law

and State Law, Dodrecht-Holland: Foris Publication.

Abdurrachman, Sukri. 2004, Konflik Pertanahan di Era Reformasi:

Hukum Negara, Hukum Adat dan Tuntutan Rakyat (Conflict

of Land Tenure in Reformation Era: State Law, Adat Law

and Claiming of the People), Jakarta: Pusat Penelitian

Kemasyarakatan dan Kebudayaan LIPI.

Araf, Al and Awan Puryadi. 2002, Perebutan Kuasa Tanah (The

Contest of Land Tenure and Control), Yogyakarta: Lappera

Pustaka Utama.

Bachriadi, Dianto, Erpan Faryadi, dan Bonnie Setiawan (eds). 1997,

Reformasi Agraria, Perubahan Politik, Sengketa, dan Agenda

Pembaruan Agraria di Indonesia (Agrarian Reformation,

Political Change, Conflicts and Agrarian Reform Agendas in

Indonesia) , Jakarta KPA & Lembaga Penerbitan FE-UI.

Bachriadi, Dianto (1998), Sengketa Agraria dan Perlunya Menegakkan

Lembaga Peradilan yang Independen (Agrarian Disputes

and the Needed for Enforcing the Independently Agrarian

Court), Bndung: Kertas Posisi KPA 002/1998, Konsorsium

Pembaruan Agraria (KPA).

Barber, Charles Victor. 1989, “The State, The Environment, and

Development:The Genesis and Transformation of Social

Forestry Policy in New Order Indonesia”, Berkeley:

Unpublished Doctoral Desertation University of California.

Black, Donald. 1984, Toward a General Theory of Social Control, New

York: Academic Press.

Black, Donald and Maureen Mileski (eds). 1973, The Social

Organization of Law, New York: Seminar Press.

Benedanto, Pax. 1999, Menggugat Ekspansi Industri Pertambangan di

Indonesia (Reclaiming over Maining Industrial Expantion in

Indonesia) , Bogor: Pustaka Latin, Bogor.

Bodley, John H. 1982, Victims of Progress, California: Mayfield

Publishing Company.

Bohannan, Paul (ed.), 1967. Law and Warfare, Studies in the

Anthropology of Conflict, Austin and London: University of

Texas Press.

Cotterel, Roger. 1995, Law’s Community, Legal Theory in Sociological

Perspective, Oxford: The Clarendon Press.

Dove, Michael R. 1981, Peranan Kebudayaan Tradisional Indonesia

dalam Modernisasi (The Role of Traditional Culture in Modern

Indonesia), Yayasan Obor Indonesia, Jakarta.

Friedman, Lawrence M. 1975, The Legal System, A Social Science

Perspective, New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Griffiths, John. 1986, What is Legal Pluralism ?, in Journal of Legal

Pluralism and Unofficial Law No. 24/1986, The Foundation

for Journal of Legal Pluralism, pp. 1-56.

Kajian Hukum dan Keadilan IUS 425

I Nyoman Nurjay |Constitutional And Legal Recognition Over Traditional Adat Community ......

Harman, Benny K. (1995), Pluralisme Hukum Pertanahan dan

Kumpulan Kasus Tanah (Pluralism in Indonesian Land Law

and Compilation Land Tenure Cases) , Jakarta: YLBHI.

Hart, H.L.A. 1960, The Concept of Law, Oxford: Oxford University


Hatfindo, 2004. “Final Report of the Study on Capacity Building for

Decentralized Natural Resources Management”, ADB TA

-INO, West Vancouver Canada: Hatfield Consultants Ltd.

Hoebel, E. Adamson. 1954, The Law of Primitive Man, Cambridge,


Hooker, M.B. 1978, Adat Law in Modern Indonesia, Oxford University

Press, USA.

Korten, D.C, “Community Based Resource Management”, in Korten

D.C. (Ed), Community Management: Asian Experience and

Perspectives, Kumarian Press.

Llewellyn, Karl and E. Adamson Hoebel. 1941. The Law of Primitive

Man, New York: Atheneum.

Moniaga, Sandra. 1999, “Toward Community-based Forestry and

Recognition of Adat Property Rights in the Outer Islands of

Indonesia”, Unpublished paper.

Moore, Sally F. 1978, Law as Progress, An Anthropological Approach,

London: Routhledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.

Nader, Laura and Harry F. Tood Jr. (eds.). 1978. The Disputing Process-

Law in Ten Societies, New York: Columbia University Press.

Nonet, Philippe and Philip Selznick. 1978. Law and Society in

Transition, Toward Responsive Law, New York: Harper

Colophon Books.

Nurjaya, I Nyoman (ed). 1993, Politik Hukum Pengusahaan Hutan di

Indonesia (Politic of Law on Forestry Management of Indonesia),

Jakarta: Wahana Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia (WALHI).

Nurjaya, I Nyoman. 2005, Magersari: Dinamika Komunitas Petani-

Pekerja Hutan dalam Perspektif Antropologi Hukum

(Magersari: The Community Dinamic of Forest Labor and

Peasant in the Perspective of Legal Anthropology) , Malang: UM


Nurjaya, I Nyoman. 2007, Pengelolaan Sumber Daya Alam dalam

Perspektif Antropologi Hukum (Natural Resources Management

in Legal Anthropology Perspective), Jakarta: Prestasi Pustaka


Nurjaya, I Nyoman. 2011. “Adat Community Lands Right As Defined

Within the State Agrarian Law of Indonesia: Is It A Genuine

or Pseudo Legal Recognition?”, in The US-China Law

Review Volume 8, Number 4, April 2011, Illinois-USA: David

Publishing Company.

Nurjaya, I Nyoman. 2012. “State Law in Multicultural Country

of Indonesia: Toward A Just and Equitable State in Legal

Anthropology Point of View”, in the US-China Law Review

Jurnal IUS | Vol II | Nomor 6 | Desember 2014 | hlm

IUS Kajian Hukum dan Keadilan


Volume 9, Number 1, Febroary 2012, Illinois-USA: David

Publishing Company.

Nurjaya, I Nyoman. 2014. “Progressive Environmental Law of

Indonesia: Global Principles of Stockholm and Rio Declations

As Defined Within The 2009 Act on Human Environment

Protection and Management”, in The US-China Law Review

Volume 11, Number 1, January 2014 (Serial Number 97),

Illinois-USA: David Publishing Company, Illinois.

Peluso, Nancy L. 1992, Rich Forest, Poor People: Resource Control and

Resistance in Java, University of California Press, USA.

Person, Gerard. 1991, “The Tension Between State Law and Local

Culture”, Unpublished Paper.

Pospisil, Leopold. 1971, Anthropology of Law, A Comparative Theory,

New York: Harper & Row Publisher.

Repetto, Robert and Malcolm Gillis. 1988, Public Policies and the Misuse

of Forest Resources, New York: Cambridge University Press.

Suhendar, Endang dan Ifdal Kasim. 1996, Tanah sebagai Komoditi,

Kajian Kritis atas Kebijakan Pertanahan Orde Baru (Land as

Economic Commodity, Critical Study of Land Tenure Policy in

the New Order Era), Jakarta: ELSAM.

Selznick, P. 1969, Law, Society, and Industrial Justice, New York:

Transaction Books,.

Snyder, F.G. 1981, “Anthropology, Dispute Process and Law: A Critical

Introduction”, dalam British Journal of Law and Society Vol. 8

No. 2 Winter, pp. 141 – 179.

Spradley, James P. and David W. McCurdy, Conformity and Conflict,

Reading in Cultural Anthropology, Boston and Toronto: Little,

Brown and Company.

Starr, June and Jane F. Collier. 1989, History and Power in The Study of

Law, New Direction in Legal Anthropology, Ithaca and London:

Cornel University Press.

Sumardjono, Maria S.W. 2008, Tanah dalam Perspektif Hak Ekonomi,

sosial, dan Budaya (Land in the Perspective of Ecnomic, Social

and Cultural Rights), Jakarta: Kompas Press.

Tamanaha, Brian. 1992, “The Folly of the Concept of Legal Pluralism”,

paper presented at the International Congress the Commission

on Folk Law and Legal Pluralism, Victoria University of

Wellington, New Zealand.

Tjitradjaja, Iwan. 1993, “Differential Acess to Resources and Conflict

Resolution an A Forest Consession in Irian Jaya”, in Ekonesia,

A Journal of Indonesian Human Ecology Vol. 1 Mei 11993, pp.


Wiradi, Gunawan. 2000, Reforma Agraria, Perjalanan Yang Belum

Berakhir (The Unfinished Journey of Agrarian Reformation),

Yogyakarta: Insist Press.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Jurnal IUS (Kajian Hukum dan Keadilan)

Analytics Jurnal IUS statcounter